viernes, 15 de marzo de 2013

Safety regulations - IMO

While there are no universally applicable definitions of ship types, specific descriptions and names are used within IMO treaties and conventions. The following is a non-exhaustive list ship types defined in various IMO instruments:
  • passenger ship is a ship which carries more than twelve passengers. (SOLAS I/2)
  • fishing vessel is a vessel used for catching fish, whales, seals, walrus or other living resources of the sea. (SOLAS I/2)
  • Fishing vessel means any vessel used commercially for catching fish, whales, seals, walrus or other living resources of the sea. (SFV 1993 article 2)
  • nuclear ship is a ship provided with a nuclear power plant. (SOLAS I/2)
  • Bulk carrier means a ship which is constructed generally with single deck, top-side tanks and hopper side tanks in cargo spaces, and is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, and includes such types as ore carriers and combination carriers. (SOLAS IX/1.6)
  • Bulk carrier means a ship which is intended primarily to carry dry cargo in bulk, including such types as ore carriers and combination carriers. (SOLAS XII/1.1)
  • Oil tanker means a ship constructed or adapted primarily to carry oil in bulk in its cargo spaces and includes combination carriers, any "NLS tanker" as defined in Annex II of the present Convention and any gas carrier as defined in regulation 3.20 of chapter II-1 of SOLAS 74 (as amended), when carrying a cargo or part cargo of oil in bulk. (MARPOL Annex I reg. 1.5)
  • General cargo ship: A ship with a multi-deck or single-deck hull designed primarily for the carriage of general cargo. (MEPC.1/Circ.681 Annex)
  • High-speed craft is a craft capable of a maximum speed, in metres per second (m/s), equal to or exceeding 3.7 times the one-sixth power of the volume of displacement corresponding to the design waterline (m³), excluding craft the hull of which is supported completely clear above the water surface in non-displacement mode by aerodynamic forces generated by ground effect. (SOLAS X/1.2, HSC Code 2000 para 1.4.30)
  • Mobile offshore drilling unit (MODU) means a vessel capable of engaging in drilling operations for the exploration for or exploitation of resources beneath the sea-bed such as liquid or gaseous hydrocarbons, sulphur or salt. (SOLAS IX/1, MODU Code 2009 para 1.3.40)
  • Special purpose ship (SPS) means a mechanically self-propelled ship which by reason of its function carries on board more than 12 special personnel. (SPS Code para 1.3.12)

Marine Environment - IMO

In the overall context of sustainable development, shipping is a very powerful and positive force, making a major contribution to global trade and prosperity in a way that has only a relatively small negative impact on the global environment.
Shipping – which transports 90 per cent of global trade – is, statistically, the least environmentally damaging mode of transport, when its productive value is taken into consideration. The vast quantity of grain required to make the world’s daily bread, for example, could not be transported any other way than by ship. Moreover, set against land-based industry, shipping is a comparatively minor contributor, overall, to marine pollution from human activities.
IMO’s original mandate was principally concerned with maritime safety. However, as the custodian of the 1954 OILPOL Convention, the Organization, soon after it began functioning in 1959, assumed responsibility for pollution issues and subsequently has, over many years, adopted a wide range of measures to prevent and control pollution caused by ships and to mitigate the effects of any damage that may occur as a result of maritime operations and accidents.
These measures have been shown to be successful in reducing vessel-sourced pollution and illustrate the commitment of the Organization and the shipping industry towards protecting the environment. Of the 51 treaty instruments IMO has adopted so far, 21 are directly environment-related or 23, if the environmental aspects of the Salvage and Wreck Removal Conventions are included.
The Marine Environment Protection Committee (MEPC) is IMO's senior technical body on marine pollution related matters. It is aided in its work by a number of IMO's Sub-Committees.

BLG (Bulk Liquids and Gases) - IMO

Under the direct instructions of the Maritime Safety Committee and the Marine Environment Protection Committee, the Sub-Committee on Bulk Liquids and Gases (BLG) will consider matters related to the following subjects, including the development of any necessary amendments to relevant conventions and other mandatory and non-mandatory instruments, as well as the preparation of new mandatory and non-mandatory instruments, guidelines and recommendations, for consideration by the Committees, as appropriate, including the role of such measures for the protection of the marine environment:
- prevention and control of marine pollution from ships and other related maritime operations involved in the transport and handling of oil and dangerous and noxious liquids substances in bulk;
- evaluation of hazards of dangerous and noxious liquid substances in bulk transported by ships;
- control and management of ships’ ballast water and sediments;
- construction, equipment and operational requirements for ships carrying bulk liquids and gases;
- protection of personnel involved in the transport of bulk liquids and gases; and
- survey and certification of ships constructed to carry bulk liquids and gases.

Safety of navigation - IMO

MO has always paid great attention to the improvement of navigational safety.
Since 1959 a whole series of measures have been introduced, in the form of conventions, recommendations and other instruments. The best known and most important of these measures are conventions, three of which are particularly relevant to navigation. These are the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, 1974 (SOLAS); the Convention on the International Regulations for Preventing Collisions at Sea, 1972 (COLREG); and the International Convention on Standards of Training, Certification and Watchkeeping for Seafarers, 1978 (STCW).
SOLAS covers various aspects of ship safety, including construction, fire protection, life-saving appliances, radiocommunications, safety of navigation, the carriage of cargoes and safety measures for high speed craft. Measures dealing with the safety of navigation appear in Chapter V. In December 2000, IMO adopted a revised version of chapter V, updating it and incorporating new requirements which entered into force in 2002.
Besides Conventions, IMO has also issued a series of resolutions and codes, including guidelines on navigation issues and performance standards for shipborne navigational and radiocommunications equipment. Some are simply recommendations - though such is their wide acceptance that they effectively mark international policy - while others are referred to by relevant Regulations of specific Conventions, thereby giving them the same weight as the Convention Regulations themselves.

Fire Protection - IMO

Fire can be devastating on a ship - particularly on a passenger ship, where large numbers of people may need to be evacuated, or on a ship carrying inflammable cargo, with serious risks to crewmembers or to ports and harbours.
On 1 July 2002, a comprehensive new set of requirements for fire protection, fire detection and fire extinction on board ships entered into force as a new revised Chapter II-2 of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea (SOLAS), 1974, as amended, incorporating technological advances in fire detection and extinction as well as lessons learned from fire incidents over the years.
The regulations are designed to ensure that fires are first of all prevented from occurring - for example by making sure that materials such as carpets and wall coverings are strictly controlled to reduce the fire risk; secondly, that any fires are rapidly detected; and thirdly; that any fire is contained and extinguished. Designing ships to ensure easy evacuation routes for crew and passengers are a key element of the chapter.