viernes, 11 de marzo de 2011


Abeam- The area at a right angle beside a boat aligned with the center of the boat.

Aboard- When something or someone is on or in a boat.

Above Deck- When someone is on deck and not in a cabin underneath.

Aft- Refers to the back area of a boat.

Aloft- A position high above a boat's deck.

Astern- The area behind a boat.

Bank- An area of shallow water created by a raised portion of the ground.

Barge- An enormous cargo-carrying boat with a flat bottom that transports large pieces of freight, typically accompanied by a tug boat.

Beam- The widest dimension of the hull of a boat.

Bear Away- The act of steering a boat away from the wind.

Below- The area beneath the main deck.

Bend- The act of fastening or securing ropes on a boat.

Bow- The front portion of a boat.

Breaker- A wave that turns to foam as it hits land.

Bridle- A strong connection of cables used for towing ships and boats.

Buoy- A floating marker in the water.

Cable- A heavy length of rope.

Capsize- When a boat turns over in the water.

Careen- When a boat tilts or leans to the side.

Centerline- The center of the boat that spans its full length.

Cleat- A fitting made of metal or other strong material, attached to a boat where a line can be fastened.

Coil- Making loops in a stretch of rope or line in order to properly store it.

Compass- An instrument with a needle that determines direction.

Deck- A floor of a boat.

Dinghy- A small boat carried on board a ship that's used to transport people to and from the craft.

Ebb tide- When the sea's tide is going out.

Elbow- A type of knot that connects two ropes.

Even keel- When a boat is sailing in an upright, balanced position.

Fair wind- A wind that is favorable for a particular sailing direction.

Fid- A tool used for splicing a rope.

Foot- The lower edge of a sail.

Fore- Refers to the front area of a boat.

Frap - The technique of wrapping rope around equipment on a boat to keep it steady and secure.

Furl- The act of securely rolling up a sail.

Galley- The area designated for food preparation on a boat.

Girtline- A rope with a block attached to it that is used to transport supplies to high areas on a boat or ship.

Halyard- A type of line used to help hoist a sail.

Helm- The wheel or tiller of a boat.

Hull- The body of a boat.

Inshore- In the direction of a shoreline.

Jib- The sail at the front of a boat.

Keel- A steel piece at the bottom of a boat that supports its frame.

Knot- A measurement of one nautical mile.

Latitude- Location north or south of the equator that is measured in degrees.

Leeward- Sailing in a downwind direction.

Longitude- Location east or west of the prime meridian that is measured in degrees.

Moor- To secure a boat in place with the help of an anchor or heavy cables.

Mooring Line- A heavy cable that secures a boat to a pier.

Nautical- A term relating to sailors and watercraft.

Offshore wind- Air that is moving away from a shoreline.

Pitch- The rising and falling motion of a boat on rough seas.

Port- The left side of a boat.

Put about- The act of changing the course of a boat.

Put in- To sail into a harbor or other stopping place.

Rigging- The collection of ropes, chains, and other equipment that helps to sail a boat.

Rudder- A steering instrument located at the stern of a boat.

Shoal- A shallow area in a body of water.

Starboard- The right side of a boat.

Stay- Heavy cable that gives support to a ship's mast.

Stern- The back of a boat.

Sternway- The motion of a ship moving backwards.

Stow- To pack or secure equipment on a boat.

Take in- To furl a sail.

Tiller- A metal or wood handle that moves a boat's rudder.

Trim- The act of adjusting the angle of a boat's sails.

Undertow- A current deep in the sea that moves in opposition to the levels of water above it.

Unfurl- To open a rolled up sail.

Veer- When a boat moves its stern to the wind and changes its original direction.

Wake- The trail left behind a boat that is moving through the water.

Waterline- The point where the surface of the water meets the hull of a boat.

Weigh Anchor- To lift a ship's anchor from the bottom of the sea in preparation to sail.

Whitecap- A type of wave that has a foamy, white top.

Windward- Sailing in an upwind direction.

Yard- A pole or rod that gives support to a sail.

Zephyr- A gentle, calm breeze



Different types of knots
: tight interlacing of two ropes. A knot is also a unit of speed in aviation and marine navigation equal to one nautical mile per hour.
Halyard knot: interlacing of ropes used to attach the halyard to a sail.
Reef knot: interlacing of ropes made of two half-knots inverse to each other.
Bowline: interlacing of ropes with a loop that can be used as support.
Two round turns and a half-hitch: interlacing of ropes around an object by making two turns, then a hal-knot.
Two half-hitches: interlacing of ropes around an object by making two half-knots, one after the other.
Double shell bend: double interlacing of ropes, used to attach two ropes together.
Sheet knot: interlacing of ropes used to attach two ropes together.
Figure of eight knot: interlacing of ropes used to finish the end of a rope.
Overhand knot: simple interlacing of a rope.

jueves, 10 de marzo de 2011



1. Lighting: As most of the ship is enclosed, natural light is available only on upper decks exposed to atmosphere. Internal parts of the ship require artificial lighting powered by electricity. Also, navigational lights powered by electricity are provided for safe navigation.
2. Forced Ventilation: Natural ventilation is also not available in the internal parts of the ship, like restricted natural lighting. So forced ventilation is provided by means of supply and exhaust fans or blowers fitted in different parts of the ship which are powered by electricity.
3. Air Conditioning & Refrigeration: Machinery/Engine Control Rooms have mostly electronic equipment. Mariners manning these, also have to be fatigue free. So, air conditioning is a necessity. Also the living spaces or crew accommodation needs air conditioning. As the ships remain at sea for longer duration in weeks and months, food items have to be stocked in cool and cold rooms ie needs refrigeration. Air conditioning and Refrigeration machinery are powered by electricity.
4. Main Engine & Propulsion: Like we have legs to swim, ships have propellers to move. Propellers are powered by main engines which may be diesel engines or by huge electrical motors if it is electrical propulsion. Also, sophisticated electronic, electro hydraulic or pneumatic control systems are associated with this main engine and propulsion system.
5. Engine Room Auxiliaries: To operate the main engine and propulsion system and other utilities onboard pumps, compressors are provided which are powered by electricity.
6. Deck Machinery & Cargo Handling: To raise/ lower ships boats (for life safety and harbour use), winches are provided. To raise/lower ships anchor, capstans or windlass are provided. For cargo handling, cranes are provided. All these equipment are electric or electro hydraulic.
          7. Navigation & Communication: Ship has to navigate through the sea to move from
          one place to other.






For safe navigation, the following equipments are available:
a. Magnetic and Gyro compass, GPS receivers: for position or location finding
b. Echo sounders: for finding the depth below the ship
c. Wind Speed and Direction instruments
d. Electric or Air Siren
e. Speed log: to measure the speed of the ship
f. Navigational radars
         g. Signaling projectors



MARITIME BUOYAGE SYSTEM Until recently, as many as 30 different buoyage systems were in use around the world. In 1982, most of the maritime nations of the world signed an agree- ment sponsored by the International Association of Lighthouse Authorities (IALA). This agreement adopted a system known as the IALA Maritime Buoyage System and provides rules that apply to all fixed and floating marks other than lighthouses, sec- tor lights, range lights, lightships, and large automatic navigational buoys (LANBYs).